How to Calculate Flow of Funds
In business, cash flow refers to the total amount of money that comes in and goes out over a given period of time. It appears in the cash flow statement and is broken down into three different categories as follows:
Execution of Tasks
The primary source of income for a company comes from its operational activities. In the event that a cash flow does not fit into one of the following two categories, it will be classified as operating activities. Revenues and expenses are typically linked to operating cash flows.
Aspects of Investing
A variety of financial instruments, such as productive assets, debt and equity securities issued by other companies, are all included in investing activities. An asset’s purchase or sale typically results in these cash flows.
Financing a Project or Program
Financing activities are those that affect the amount of equity and borrowings an entity has. Liabilities or equity are typically the subjects of these cash flows, which involve transactions between the reporting entity and its sources of funding.
Presentation of Cash Flows in an Indirect Way
The indirect method of presentation is commonly used to compile operating cash flow calculations. Non-cash revenue and expense items are added to or subtracted from the net income or loss to arrive at the cash provided by operating activities. In order to derive operating cash flows, it is necessary to make the following adjustments to net income:
- Earned money
- Provision for bad debt losses is one example of an expense that has accrued over time.
- Depreciation, amortisation, and depletion are examples of non-cash expenses.
- Profits and losses resulting from asset sales
- Changes in receivable accounts
- Changes to the stock
- Accounts payable reorganisation
The following items are included in the calculation of investment cash flow:
- Transfer of funds for investment purchases and sales, as well as the reverse
- cash flows for the acquisitions and sales of long-term capital assets
- Expenditures and receipts of the business entity in money
The following components go into the calculation of financing activities’ cash flow:
- Sales of stock bring in cash.
- Debt-related cash flows.
- Outflows of cash from stock repurchases
- Expenditures to pay off debt
- Paying out dividends requires cash outflows.
The calculation of cash flow per share and the cash flow return on sales necessitates the use of cash flow data.